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Friday, February 19, 2016

hi blogger

Greetings blogger


http://jpfarg.se/beneath.php?guess=t122gadak3sm9



Warmly

Pardeep Kumar

Monday, June 27, 2005

RSS feed from newspaper

RSS is a way of providing content to the user's browser or desktop in
an efficient way. By using RSS feeds, the user can stay updated on
the news from Indiatimes and other news sources with very little
extra effort.

RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feeds are normally provided in three
ways: headlines only, headlines with excerpts and full text feeds.
Indiatimes provides you with the headlines with excerpts version for
free. Of the multiple RSS formats that exist today (RSS 0.91, RSS
0.92, RSS 2.0.

I downloaded SharpReader. This is free RSS reader. I added RSS feeds
from Times Of India, Indian Express, CNN and my blog. This is very
nice thing to have all the news from different source in one place.
Now I get news like I get mail from different sender.
To add any new RSS feed I have to just click File->Open rss feed
and in the pop up window add RSS feed address, check subscribe to
feed Box and click okay...and I get all the new news articles in my
SharpReader window

It is that simple.

Saturday, June 25, 2005

8 Exercise Myths

Myth 1: If you don’t exercise at least 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week there’s no point in exercising at all
Myth 2: Spot-training will reduce target areas of fat
Myth 3: Muscle turns to fat when you stop exercising
Myth 4: The best time to exercise is between 6 and 7 in the morning
Myth 5: Weight training makes you gain weight
Myth 6: No pain, no gain
Myth 7: You can’t exercise if you’ve just eaten
Myth 8: If you burn more calories than you eat, you will lose weight more effectively
=====================================
Myth 1: If you don’t exercise at least 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week there’s no point in exercising at all
Although 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week is the amount of exercise recommended for optimal health by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, it's not a requirement. Exercise is beneficial no matter how little is done. That doesn't mean regular exercise is not a necessity for weight-loss and good health, but it does mean you shouldn't deprive yourself of exercise just because you can't get in as much as you'd like. Spending 10 minutes each night walking your dog is much more beneficial to your health then sitting in front of the television.
Bottom line: Any amount of exercise will do your body good!


Myth 2: Spot-training will reduce target areas of fat
There is no magic exercise for these problem areas. Sure, 500 crunches will tighten your tummy - but they're not going to do anything for the layer of fat surrounding the muscles. The American Council on Exercise states that doing "100 sit-ups a day for a flabby stomach will increase muscle endurance for the abdomen, but will not burn off the fat in that area." The fact is, it takes cardio to burn the fat.
Bottom line: Keep the crunches but add a power walk or some other cardio to reduce overall body fat.


Myth 3: Muscle turns to fat when you stop exercising
That's about as logical as saying your tennis shoes will turn into stilettos if you stop wearing them! Despite what you may have heard, muscle does not turn to fat if you stop exercising. When you stop exercising, your muscles will shrink because they're not being used, but it's impossible for them to convert to fat. Even better news - there is actually some evidence to show that your muscles can retain much of your previous exercise experience. A high-school athlete, or someone with previous exercise experience, may be able to start up a training regime much faster than a non-athlete. So: "I don't want to start exercising because as soon as I stop, I'll lose all my muscle," is second-to-none in the lame excuses box.
Bottom line: Muscle will not turn to fat if you stop exercising so quit the excuses and start a program ASAP!

Myth 4: The best time to exercise is between 6 and 7 in the morning
Not if you can't keep your eyes open! The best time to exercise is when it suits you best, provided you aim to get in your 30 minutes a day. If you're not a morning person, don't even think about exercising in the morning - you'll most likely fall off your bike or trip up on your shoelace or forget where it was you were supposed to jog to. The same thing goes for people who don't have time in the afternoon or who are completely drained by nightfall; exercise when you can, not when you think you should. There is no "best time" and no specific time when your body will burn more fat.
Bottom line: The best time to exercise is the time you exercise best.


Myth 5: Weight training makes you gain weight
Think Madonna has a middle-aged paunch under that leather jacket? Or that Brittney Spears has a secret roll of flab ... no, wait a minute, nothing she wears could cover anything; definitely no flab! And yet both superstar and superstarlet pump iron as part of their daily fitness routines. We must conclude then, that although weight training may initially cause a slight jump upwards in pounds (because muscle weighs more than fat) it's not going to hinder your weight loss.
Many women are afraid that picking up a set of weights will cause them to bulk up, and so they argue that cardio workouts will do the trick. But this is a falsehood because testosterone plays a large part in creating larger muscles and women simply don't produce enough of it to gain bulk when lifting weights. Toned definition in the arms and legs is far more likely to be the outcome of some weight training if you're female.
Men, on the other hand, often lift weights to bulk up but avoid cardio workouts like the plague. Men need to recognize that their weight training regime will only be boosted if they add some cardio.
Bottom line: Adding weights to your workout will only increase your results.

Myth 6: No pain, no gain
Intense pain doesn't benefit your body
How many times have you heard this simple but stupid phrase ... and believed it? Pain is your body's way of telling you that you're doing it harm, so don't ignore it! Constantly pushing through that pain can only result in injury. A little bit of discomfort is fine, but any more than that and you should listen to your body - not the voice in your head saying "no pain, no gain".
While we're on the subject, few people realize that even the way they exercise can lead to injury. For example, walking with hand weights can cause unnecessary damage to your body. The extra weight is not significant enough to make a difference and nine times out of ten incorrect use just causes excess strain to muscles and joints. It's better to do a short strength building workout after a walk.
Bottom line: When you feel pain, immediately stop. When you feel a slight burn, keep on truckin'!

Myth 7: You can’t exercise if you’ve just eaten
It may be uncomfortable to exercise immediately after you've eaten but it's not going to do you any damage. Contrary to popular beliefs, even swimming after you've eaten is fine. It is true that exercise after a large meal may interfere with digestion as energy is directed away from the digestion process and towards the exercise; this can result in a slight stomach ache. However, all this really means is that if you run a marathon after Thanksgiving dinner you may make yourself ill. A comfortably paced walk after the meal would be a better option and might help to relieve some of that bloated feeling.
Bottom line: You can exercise after you eat, but don't overdo it.

Myth 8: If you burn more calories than you eat, you will lose weight more effectively
Aim for 4 green ticks on your Food and Exercise Diary
Lose weight? Yes. Effectively? No. When too few calories are consumed your body believes it is being starved and almost every calorie you consume is held on to. Before your body will burn the fat you are trying to lose, it will start eating the muscle. This is why someone with anorexia has low body weight but high body fat. You also miss out on important nutrients.
The CalorieKing.com plan has three calorie categories: food calories, exercise calories and overall calories. No matter how many calories you burn, you need a certain amount of calories in order to lose weight effectively. If you only exercise a small amount, you should stay around your recommended net calorie intake. If you exercise more than normal, that's a bonus. If you exercise in extreme amounts, you need to replenish many of those burnt calories. Some people will eat 1500 calories but burn 1000 working out for an overall calorie intake of 500! Not a good idea for effective weight-loss or general health and well-being.
Bottom line: Eat enough calories for your body to lose weight effectively and always stay near your overall recommended calorie intake.

Gautam Goswami's one face

 

Aditi's Birthdate Mean:


Aditi's Birthdate: June 18
Your birthday on the 18th day of the month suggests than you are one who can work well with a group, but still remain someone who needs to maintain individual identity.
There is a humanistic or philanthropic approach to business circumstances in which you find yourself.
You may have good executive abilities, as you are very much the organizer and administrator.

You are broad-minded, tolerant and generous; a compassionate person that can inspire others with imaginative ideas.
Some of your feelings may be expressed, but even more of them are apt to be repressed.
There is a lot of drama in your personality and in the way you express yourself to others.
Oddly enough, you don't expect as much in return as you give.

Renu's Birthdate Meaning



Renu's Birthdate: April 4

Being born on the 4th day of the month should help make you a better manager and organizer.
You may be more responsible and self-disciplined than you realize.
Sincere and honest, you are a serious and hard working individual.

Your feelings are likely to seem somewhat repressed at times.
The number 4 has something of an inhibiting effect on your ability to show and express affections, as feeling are very closely regulated and controlled.
You are apt to be much more practical, rational, and conscious of details.
There is a good deal of rigidity and stubbornness associated with the number 4.

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Indian Flag Tiranga
Mrs. Sarojini Naidu said : " Under this flag, there is no difference between a prince and a peasant, between the rich and the poor, between man and women. "
Wednesday,January 16,2002 Hindustan Times
Controls off on hoisting tricolour
New Delhi,January 15
The Union Cabinet decided that all citizens of India could hoist the tricolour throughout the year. Earlier they could do so only on special days such as Republic Day and Independence Day. An amended Flag Code will be implemented within a fortnight of Republic Day to give effect to this right.
But some restrictions will be put in place to prevent deliberate insults to the national flag. The Cabinet approved changes in the Prevention of Insults to National Honor Act, 1971 to give force to these restrictions. The proposed amendments are expected to define in detail acts of serious disrespect to the tricolour and provide strict penalties for such unlawful acts.
Among the restrictions are bans on :
Flying a damaged or disheveled flag; Flying it with the saffron band at the bottom; Draping it over vehicles; Using it as a drapery at private funerals; Printing it on a costume, cushion, napkin or handkerchief; and Flying it on a vehicle unless permitted to do so by the Center .
Parliamentary Affairs Minister Pramod Mahajan said that the amended Flag Code will be the amended Flag Code will be included in school syllabuses. He said that appropriate legislation will also be passed to prevent the misuse of the state emblem.
Mahajan said the decision was taken in the wake of Supreme Court and High Court judgments in favor of extending this right.
While the Supreme Court had observed that restrictions on flying the national flag appeared prima facie unsustainable, the Delhi High Court had ruled that the display of the tricolour was part of the fundamental right to freedom of expression
I am Tiranga. I was born on July 22, 1947 in the Constituent Assembly on the eve of the Independence of India. When the Adhoc Committee on the Flag adopted me as the National Flag of free India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru made a memorable speech and concluded saying : " So sir, now I present to you not only the Resolution, but the Flag itself ".
In fact, I owe my birth to the sacrifices and blessings of all great souls, who brought freedom of India. It was late evening of August 14, 1947 at 10:45 p.m., and the Central Hall of the Council Hall, now known as the Parliament House was over packed to its capacity. At the appointed hour, the proceedings of the House commenced with the singing of Bande Matram led by Mrs. Sucheta Kriplani, the wife of then Congress President, Achraya Kriplani. This was followed by brief opening address by the Chairman, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, followed by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru's famous speech, Tryst with Destiny.
Finally, the resolution was moved to take the Oath of the Dedication. The text of the ran:- " At this solemn moment when the people of India, by their suffering and sacrifice have secured freedom and become martyrs of their destiny I .........., a member of Constituent Assembly of India, do dedicate myself to the service of India and her people to the end that this ancient land attain its rightful and honored place in the world and make its full willing contribution to the promotion of the world peace and welfare of mankind." All the members took the oath standing. The oath was read by its chairman, Dr.Rajendra Prasad first in Hindi and then in English. At that solemn moment every stone of the Parliament House echoed with the lusty shouts of " Mahatma Gandhi ki Jai " and " Bande Mataram ". After the resolution by the House, Mrs. Hansa Mehta presented to the Chairman the Tiring on behalf of the women of India, symbolizing the birth of the Indian National - Flag. While presenting the flag to Dr. Rajendra Parsed, Mrs. Meat said, " It is in the fitness of things that the first flag, that is to fly over this august House should be a gift from the women of India."
Dr. Rajendra Prasad fondly received the flag from Mrs. Hansa Mehta and showed it around. With the flag showing gesture of the chairman, the proceedings of the historic day came to a close with the singing of Sare Jahan Se Achcha Hindostan Hamara and Jana Gana Mana (till then the song had not been adopted as the National Anthem of India).
August 15, 1947
The dawn of Independence day began at 8:30 Am., with the swearing in ceremony at the Vice regal Lodge (now known as the Rashtrapati Bhawan). The new Government was sworn in the central hall (now Durbar Hall). Two large size National Flags along with the Governor General's flag in deep blue with the Star of India were majestically hung in the backdrop on the wall of the hall facing the distinguished gathering.
The Tiranga proudly went up for the first time against a free sky of Independent India on the flag mast of the Council House at 10:30 a.m. As the Tricolor went up the flag mast, a 31 gun salute was accorded to the symbol of the newly born nation. In the afternoon of the August 15, 1947, the first public flag salutation ceremony was held at the War Memorial at the Prince's Park near India Gate. As the first Prime Minister of the India unfurled the Tiranga against a clear warm sky, from now where a rainbow appeared on the horizon as though to bless Trianga. Lord Louis Mount batten, the first Governor General of free India in his 17th Report dated 16,1947, wrote that the three colors e.g. saffron, white and green in the flag of the new dominion resembled so much the hues of the rainbow. The Indian people interpreted the occurrence as a salute of Lord Indra, the god of rains to the Tiranga.
Tiranga was hoisted for the first time on the ramparts of the Red Fort on the morning of August 16, which was a Saturday at 8:30 Am., and not on 15th August 11947 as is commonly believed. It was from 1948 onwards that the flag hoisting ceremony at the Red Fort was started on August 15. Speaking on the occasion, Pandit Nehru made a mention of Subhash Chandra Bose's dream of seeing the National Flag hoisted on the Red Fort and regretted that he was not there to witness the day.
Since antiquity man has used flags. From the immemorial, people have laid down lives for their flags. Indeed, there is something so compelling in this piece of cloth, called the National Flag, that people make even the supreme sacrifice for its sake. While any other flag stands as a symbol of faith in a family, a community or a clan, the National Flag stands for the whole nation, its idles, aspirations, its hopes and achievements. It is a beacon showing to its people the path when their very existence is threatened. It is at this time of danger that this much length of cloth inspires people to unite under its umrella and urge them to defend the honor of their motherland.
The word flag is of Teutonic (German) origin and probably came into use around the 15th and 16th centuries in various northern European languages signifying a piece of cloth, bunting or a similar material displaying the insignia of a community, an armed force, an office or an individual. A flag in a classical sense is usually, but not always oblong and attached to a staff or halyard.
In the early days of history, the flags besides being objects of worship and reverence, also served as rallying points for organizing armies and for identification of friend and foe during battles. For this purpose flag bearers were used in wars to give direction to soldiers.
This practice of caring flags to battlefields in war time and before kings and members of royalty during peace time was followed by almost all the early civilization of the world, namely the Egyptian, Assyrians, Greeks, Romans, Chinese, Indians and others. A study of old records revel that sacred emblems of special significance were borne by members of royalty, their military units and ships. As Assyrian statue dating back to 671 B.C. shows a soldier with a standard of a period are shown on pottery bearing signs of harpoon, or fish etc. may be to indicate their port of origin. It was another use of flags in old times.
The ancient standard consisted of some solid object fixed on a bracket at the top of pole sometimes with streamers attached to it. And, the object displayed on the standard used to be sacred. The ancient Persian displayed a vaulter on a javelin on their flags during war. The Greeks choose an armor, while the Romans had an eagle or effigies of gods or figures of animals like wolves, horses and bears on their standards. The Chinese usually bore figures of a dragon, a red bird, a white tiger or a snake. They were carried on chariots and planted upon the walls of captured cities. The vexllum or the Roman cavalry flag, was nearest to a flag in a modern sense, as it was a square piece of cloth fastened to bar place crosswise on a spearhead. The labrum or the imperial standard of the later Roman emperors, was of a similar pattern but a bit larger of pure silk and embroidered in gold. Though in ancient times flags were in use the world over, it is well supported with probability that the birth place of the flag was India or China.
In ancient India flags had great significance too. They were in use even in 4000-3000 B.C during the Indus Valley Civilization and Vedic period 2500-1500 B.C. During the Indus figures of a unicorn and an incense burner. The epic heroes are described to have well conceived and defined personal standards. They carried these flags on chariots and elephants. The flags in India were the first objects of attack in a battle in old times. The destructive of a dhvaja was considered sacrilegious and the offender had to repair the damage or pay a fine of five hundred panas. Its fall would mean confusion, if not defeat as was the case in China. One special attribute of Indian flag was, they were often triangular in shape and scarlet or green in color with a figure embroidered in gold and a gold fringe around it. Some Indian flag staffs were surmounted by a figure similar to that displayed on the flag itself. Besides the conventional use, flags also had been used in India as in China for signaling. A white flag was used as a signal for a truce.
Prophet Mohammed, the founder of Islam adopted the 'Roman Eagle' for need of a flag for his troops. His successors, the later Caliphs (Abbasids), adopted a black flag with the legend " Mohammed is the Apostle of God ", superimposed in white. Islamic flags, however, were greatly simplified and appear to have been plain black, white or red. Black was supposed to have been the color of Mohammed's banner, the color of vengeance. A black flag was used by the Abbasids in 746 A.D. (A.H. 129), the Omayyads and Alids chose white by contrast and the Khawarij (Kharijites) red. Keeping the tradition a plain red flag is therefore, retained by the modern Sultanates of Muscat and Oman. Green was the color of the Ftimid dynasty and eventually became the color of Islam. The crescent moon, with or without an additional star or stars has since become the accepted the symbol of Islam. The use of flag was probably transmitted to Europe by the Saraccus. They, however, developed their own elaborate heraldry in the due course. European flags of various forms and purpose are known as colors, standards, banners, ensigns, pennants or pennons, guidons and burgees. Interestingly, many European nations adopted around 13th and 14th centuries and still use their flag the Cross in Geneva, representatives of 12 nations signed a treaty of all armed forces should bear a red cross on white, the Swiss flag with reversed colors. this has since remained the symbol of the International Red Cross Organization.
Tricolor Flags
Most ancient flags conceptually and originally had been unicolour such as red, green, white or black. But, during the medieval period, bicolor and tri-colour flags came into being, may be to denote alliance between like minded people. Austria is believed to have had a tri-colour flag with horizontal stripes of red, white and red around the 13th century. The Dutch also used a flag of orange, white and blue in horizontal stripes of equal width in a revolution against Spain in 1574 A.D. Orange was replaced by red in the 17th century, leaving the Dutch flag exactly as it is now. The Revolutionary French tricolour intellectually and socially invaded the rest of Europe in 1789 world. The blue, white and red of france was revolutionary in intent, though it was not wholly novel in design, as Austria and Netherlands already had tricolors as way back as the 13th and 16 century. The tricolour thus stood for revolution. The Indian tricolour hoisted in Calcutta on August 7, 1906, in the words of one of the chief designers of that flag Sukumar Mitra too, was inspired by the French tricolour.
One hard fact of our history is that we never in the past had a National flag for the whole of India. The stretch of land called India, in the true sense of the word, had never been one nation. There had been dynasties, clans, tribes and communities. Each had its own territory, traditions, customs and political norms. All these big and small kingdoms were rule under their respective flags. There had therefore been dhvajas of the epic heroes, standards of monarchs, flags of dynasties, banners of warriors, etc., but a National Flag for the entire length and breadth of the country never existed.
Whenever a king extended his territory by defeating another king, he still allowed the vanquished to fly his flag over the conquered territory. The Garuda banner of the Mauryas and the Guptas was more a dynastic coat - of - arms than a National - Flag. Similarly, the Changi of Rana Pratap, the Bhagva - jhanda of Shivaji, the triangular Hanuman Banner of rani ki Jhansi, and the Alam of the Mughals were mere symbols of the Rajput. Maratha and Mughal pride. Even during the British rule, there were 565 princely states in India. They all had their own flags and royal emblems. Besides, the Viceroy and Governor - General of India also had their flags. As a people we were never true Indians in the strict sense of the term. We were either Punjabis, Sindhis, Kashmiris, Marathis, Gujaratis, Bengalis, Assamese and the rest. On the top of it we were Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Jains, Parsis etc. Such a fragmented political set up of India suited the English who came to India as one nation and ruled over as under one flag Union Jack.
Western political thought and especially the French Revolution and its slogan " Liberty, Equality, Fraternity " acquainted the Indians with the idea of nationalism. When Raja Ram Mohan Roy was sailing to England in January, 1831 he limped his way from his ship to a French vessel that was berthed along with his in the Cape town harbour just to greet the French flag. For him the French tricolour was not a mere National - Flag but the symbol of French revolution, seeing the flag, he exclaimed " Glory, Glory, Glory ! ". In the French tricolour, the great nationalist saw the dream of India's Independence.
The uprising of 1857 intensified the spirit of nationalism in the people of India. Though the war was fought under several flags, there was only one common flag song which briefly echoed those days. However, that speaking volumes for our growing sense of nationalism. Its wording were :
" Hindu, Mussalman, Sikh hamara Bhai bhai pyara Yeh hai jhanda azadi ka Ise salam hamara "
The language and the text of the song make it obvious that it refers to the Green - and - Gold flag of Bhadur shah Zafar.
Sister Nivedita's Flag :
At the turn of the century, the quest for a National - Flag assumed greater urgency with the rise of the Swadeshi - Movement. Sister Nivedat, an Irish disciple of Swami Vivekananda, was one of the first to concive of a National - Flag for India. In 1904, while on a visit to Buddha Gaya in the company of J. C. Bose and Rabindranath Tagore, she saw the Vajra - chinha for the first time and was instantly inspired. Vajra (thunderbolt) is the sign for the Lord Buddha. It is also connected with Siva and goddess Durga. It is sign of strength being the celebrated weapon of Lord Indra, the war god. Having been inspired by the vajra - chinha, Sister Nivedita designed a National Flag for India. She got another flag made by her pupils, in scarlet and yellow. It was displayed at the exhibition organised by the Congress in its annual session at Calcutta in December, 1906. Her flag was square in shape, with a red field. It had a hundred and jyotis all along the border and vajra in yellow at the centre with Vande on the left and the Mataram on the right of it, in Bengali script. The legend Vande Mataram was also in yellow in yellow. Sister Nivedita, later in 1909 under a pseudonym wrote an article " Vajra as a design for a National - Flag ", in the Modern Review, in which she suggests a design for a National Flag in which the thunderbolt (vajra) and a lotus were included to symbolise the heritage of India. She wrote that red implied struggle for freedom, yellow meant victory, and the white lotus denoted purity.
The Calcutta - Flag :
Lord Curzon was the viceroy of India from 1898 to 1905. He antagonised the Indians by promulgating many unpopular laws. But his decision to partition Bengal in the name of better administration, when the nation was groaning under the havoc caused by famine, earthquake and the plague was most unfortunate. The scheme of partition was to merge the eastern districts of Decca, Shahi and Chittagaon with Assam and form a new province of ' East Bengal and Assam '. The rest of Bengal was to be joined to Orissa and the new Province was to be called ' Bengal '. Britisher's tried ' divide and rule ' policy and wanted to set Hindus against Muslims. On August 7, 1906, the first anniversary of the anti-partition movement, a big rally was organised at Parsi Bagan Squre (Greer Park) in Calcutta. For the first time a tricolour flag was unfurled there. The moving spirit behind the design of this flag was Schindra Prasad Bose, a close follower of Sir Surendranath Banerjee and the son-in-law of the moderate Brahmo leader, Krishna Kumar Mitra. The flag they designed had open lotuses on the top green, yellow and red. It had eight half open lotuses on the green stripe, Vande Mataram in blue on the middle yellow stripe, and the sun and moon (crescent) in white on the bottom red stripe. This flag was for the first time hoisted at the Parsi Bagan Square on August 7, 1906, which was observed as Boycott Day to protest against the partition of Bengal, Narendranath Sen ceremonially the flag and sang a song. Sir Surendranath Banerjee, who hoisted this flag with the bursting of a hundred and one crackers.
By the New Year of 1947, the Britons had fully realised that the time had come for Britain to leave India. The British Parliament seeing the writing on the wall, voted by an overwhelming majority to end the British rule in the subcontinent, no later than June 1948. The new Prime Minister of England, Mr. Clement Attlee, decided to do the inevitable by appointing Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten as the new Viceroy. He was the last Englishman to govern India. On March 24,1947 he made the historic announcement about the decision of the British government to free India on June 3, 1947. With this announcement, the national leaders started thinking to have a National Flag which would be acceptable to all the political Flag Committee. Dr. Rajendra Prasad had to design the flag for free India. The Committee , besides the chairman, consisted of stalwarts such as Abdul Kalam Azad, K.M. Panikar, Sarojini Naidu, C. Rajagopalachari, K.M. Munshi and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
The Flag Committee which was constituted on June23, 1947 took some deliberate decisions on July14, 1947 for the National Flag which is as follows :
The flag of the Indian National Congress should be adopted as the National Flag of India with suitable modifications, to make it acceptable to all parties and communities in India. The flag should be tricoloured , with three bands horizontally arranged. The colors should be in the following order safforn on top, white in the middle and the dark green at the bottom. The emblem should be an exact reproduction of the wheel on the capital of Ashoka's Sarnath Pillar, superimposed in the middle of the central white band. The color of the emblem should be blue.
Having arrived at these decisions, the committee started preparing samples of the new flag. On July 18, 1947 committee decided that Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru would place the recommendations before the house on July22, 1947. He presented two flags to the Assembly one made of khadi - silk and the other of cotton - khadi. The resolution was carried unanimously. After the adoption of the tricolour as the National Flag the Secretatriat of the Constituent Assembly received numerous requests for samples of the approved design. Some enterprising individual took advantage of the opportunity. The issue of the August 10, 1947 of The Hindustan Times carried an advertisement which read :
As a goodwill gesture The Hindustan Times distributed free to its readers a paper flag souvenir along with its issue of July 28, 1947 to acquaint people with the approved design of the National Flag.
As an Honorable Member of the Ad - hoc Committee on the Flag, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru presented to the Constituent Assembly of India on July 22, 1947 two flags. Presenting the flags, he moved the following Resolution :
" Resolved that the National - Flag of India shall be horizontal tricolour.......
The ratio of the width to the length of the Flag shall ordinarily be 2 : 3 "
At the request of the Ministry of Home Affairs and the Army Headquarters in 1950 after India became a Republic and adopted the Tiranga as the National Flag of the Republic, the Indian Standards Institution ( now Bureau of Indian Standards ) brought out specifications on the National Flag for the first time in 1951. These specifications were revised in 1964, with a view to completely changing over the dimensions of the to the metric system. On August 17, 1968, the specifications were revised a second time. These specifications cover all the essential requirements of the National Flag for its manufacture. While the specifications by the ISI were initially being worked out, the Government of India expressed a desire that the cloth for the manufacture of the flag for use by the Government should be hands pun and hand woven khadhi. Gandhiji suggested that Tiranga must be made of ' khaddar '. Dr. Suniti kumar Chatterjee also said that it should be made of cotton or silk. Accordingly, it was decided that the the cloth be it cotton, woollen or silk used for the manufacturing for the Tiranga even the yarn used for cloth would be hands pun and the sewing thread of three colors namely India - safforn, white and India - green to be used for stiching the flag would also be khadi.
The Indian Standard, thus describes the design and constructional details of the National Flag of India :
" The flag shall be rectangular in shape and the ratio of the length to the width shall be 3 : 2. The flag shall be a tricolour panel made up of three rectangular panels or sub - panels of equal widths. The colors of the top panels shall be India - saffron ( kesari ), and that of the bottom panel shall be India - green, the middle panel shall be white bearing at its centre the design of Ashoka Chakra in navy blue color. The Ashoka Chakra shall have 24 spokes equally spaced and shall preferably be screen printed or otherwise printed or stencilled or suitably embroidered with navy blue color. In all the cases, the chakra shall be completely visible on both sides of the flag in the centre of the white panel. "
The spectrophotometric value of all the colors described by the ISI as India - safforn, India - Green and white, was measured and determined in conformity with the colors of the sealed sample heald at Kanpur, by the Technical Development Establishment Laboratory (Stores) in Kanpur by using the illuminent - ' C ' as specified by the International Commission on Illumination - 1931. Although, no embargo is levied on the manufacture of the National Flag by private agencies. It is extremely desirable to maintain the honour and dignity of the flag. Therefore, all flags manufacturers must confirm to the specifications laid down by the ISI.
CORRECT DISPLAY OF TIRANGA
1.Wherever the Tiranga is flown, it should occupy the position of honour and be distinctly placed. 2.Where the practice is to fly the Tiranga on any public building, it shall be flown on that building on all days, including Sundays & Holidays. It shall be flown from sunrise to sunset irrespective of weather conditions. The flag may be flown on such a building at night also, but this should be only on very special occasions. 3.The Tiranga shall always be hoisted briskly and lowered slowly and ceremoniously. When the hoisting and the lowering of the flag is accompanied by appropriate bugle calls, the hoisting and lowering should be simultaneous with the bugle calls. 4.When the Tiranga is displayed from a staff projecting horizontally or at an angle from windowsill, balcony, or front of a building, the saffron band shall be at the farther end of the staff. 5.When the Tiranga is displayed flat and horizontal on a wall, the saffron band shall be uppermost and when displayed vertically, the saffron band shall be to the right with reference to the Flag, i.e it may be to the right of a person facing it. 6.When displayed over the middle of a street, running east-west or north-south, the Tiranga shall be suspended vertically with the saffron to the north, or to the east as the case may be. 7.When the Tiranga is displayed on a speaker's platform, it shall be flown on a staff on the speaker's right as he faces the audience or flat against the wall above and behind the speaker. 8.When used on occasions like the unveiling of a statue, the Tiranga shall be displayed distinctly and separately. 9.When the Tiranga is displayed alone on a motor car, it shall be flown from staff which should be affixed firmly to the car in the middle front of the bonnet. 10.When the Tiranga is carried in a procession or a parade, it shall be either on the marching right, that is the Flag's own right, or if there is a line of other flags, in front of the centre of the line.
INCORRECT DISPLAY OF TIRANGA
1.A damaged or disheveled Tiranga must not be displayed. 2.The Flag must not be dipped in salute to any person or thing. 3.No other flag or bunting shall be placed higher than or above or side by side with the Tiranga, nor shall any object, including flowers or garlands or emblems be placed on or above the flag mast from which the Tiranga is flown. 4.The Tiranga must not be used as a festoon, rosette or bunting or in any other manner for decoration, nor shall other coloured pieces of cloth be so arranged as to give the appearance of the Tiranga. 5.The Tiranga must not be used to cover a speaker's desk nor should it be draped over a speaker's platform. 6.The Tiranga must not be displayed with the " saffron " down. 7.The Tiranga must not be allowed to touch the ground or the floor or trail in water. 8.The Tiranga must be not be displayed or fastened in any manner as may damage it.
MISUSE OF THE TIRANGA
1.The Tiranga must not be used as a drapery in any form whatsoever except in State / military funerals. 2.The Tiranga must not be draped over the hood, top, sides or back of a vehicle or a train or a boat. 3.The Tiranga must not be used or stored in such a manner as may damage or soil it. 4.When the Tiranga is in a damaged or soiled condition, it may not be cast aside or disrespectfully disposed of, but shall be destroyed as a whole in private, preferably by burning or by any other method consistent with the dignity of the flag. The other proper way to destroy the Tiranga could be immersion into the Ganga or buried with due respect. 5.The Tiranga must not be used as a covering for a building. 6.The Tiranga must not be used as a portion of a costume or uniform of any description. It shall not be embroidered upon cushions or handkerchiefs or printed on napkins or boxes. 7.Lettering of any kind shall not be put upon the Tiranga.' 8.The Tiranga must not be used in any form of advertisement nor shall an advertisement sign be fastened to the pole from which the flag is flown. 9.The Tiranga must not be used as a receptacle for receiving, delivering, holding or carrying anything.
DISPLAY ON NATIONAL DAYS OR ON SPECIAL OCCASIONS
1.The display of the Tiranga is unrestricted throughout the country on the following occasions. However, following the judgement of the Delhi High Court on the Tiranga, all restrictions are now rendered invalid.
Republic Day - during the period from the commencement to the close of the celebrations, until Beating of Retreat ceremony on January 29 at Vijay Chowk, Delhi.
National week - April 6 to April 13 - in memory of the martyrs of Jallianwala Bagh.
Independence Day : August 15
Mahatma Gandhi's birthday : October 2 and
Any other particular day of national rejoicing as may be specified by the Government of India.
1.(a) The display of Tiranga shall be unrestricted in a State on the anniversary of the formation of that state.
2.The Government of India may authorise the unrestricted display of the Tiranga on any specified day in any local area on account of local celebration.
SALUTE TO THE TIRANGA
During the ceremony of hoisting or lowering the Tiranga or when the flag is passing in a parade or in a review, all persons present should face the flag and stand attention. Those present in uniform should render the appropriate salute. When the Flag is in a moving column. persons present will stand at attention or salute as the Flag passes them. A dignitary may take the salute without a head dress.
Display with Flags of Other Nations and of the United Nations
1.When displayed in a straight line with Flags of other countries, the National-Flag shall be on the extreme right; (i.e.) if an observer were to stand in the centre of the row of the flags facing the audience, the National-Flag should be to his extreme right. Flags of foreign countries shall proceed as from the National-Flag in alphabetical order on the basis of English versions of the names of the countries concerned. It would be permissible in such a case to begin and also to end the row of flags with the National-Flag and also to include the National Flag in the normal country wise alphabetical order. The National-Flag shall be hoisted first and lowered last. 2.In case flags are to be flown in an open circle, i.e., in an arc or a semi-circle, the same procedure shall be adopted, as is indicated in the preceding paragraphs. In case flags are to be flown in a closed, i.e., complete circle, the National-Flag shall mark the beginning of the circle and the flags of other countries should proceed in a clockwise manner until the last flag is placed next to the National-Flag. It is not necessary to use separate National-Flags to mark the beginning and the end of the circle of flags. The National-Flag shall also be included In Its alphabetical order in such a closed circle. When the National-Flag Is displayed against a wall with another flag from crossed staffs, the National-Flag shall be on the right (i.e.) the flag's own right, and Its staff shall be in front of the staff of the other Flag. 3.When the United Nations' flag is flown along with the National-Flag, it can be displayed on either side of the National-Flags. The general practice is to fly the National Flag on the extreme right with reference to the direction which it Is facing (i.e. extreme left of an observer facing the masts flying the flags.) 4.When the National-Flag Is flown with flags of other countries, the flag masts shall be of equal size. International usage forbids the display of the flag of one nation above that of another nation in time of peace. 5.The National-Flag shall not be flown from a single masthead simultaneously with any other flag or flags. There shall be separate mastheads for different flags. 6.On occasions specified by the Government, such as the visit of a foreign dignitary, the general public may wave the National-Flag made of paper and the paper flag of the other country. After use. they shall be disposed of in a proper manner preferably by burning in private. 7.With permission of the Government, the National Flag and the flags of other countries may be displayed on occasions such as cultural shows, exhibitions, musical concerts, film festivals, etc., sponsored by the diplomatic or consular representatives of foreign governments. 8.A foreigner or a foreign firm/institution may fly the National-Flag of India along with the flag of his/its country on the Indian National days or his/its own country's national days, in accordance with the procedure indicated above.
Rules for Official Display of the National-Flag
Public buildings :
Normally, the National-Flag should be flown only on important public buildings such as High Courts, Secretariat Commissioners' Offices, Collectorates, Jails and offices of the District Boards, Municipalities, Zilla Parishads and Departmental /Public Sector undertakings. In frontier areas the National-Flag may be flown on the international borders, custom-posts, check-posts, outposts, and at other special places where the flying of the Flag takes on special significance. In addition, it may be flown on camp sites of border patrols, airports, lighthouses facing international waters.
Official residences :
(a) The National-Flag should be flown on the official residences of the President, Vice-President, Governors and Lieutenant Governors when they are at Headquarters and on the building In which they stay during their visits to places outside the Headquarters. The Flag flown on the official residence should, however, be brought down as soon as the dignitary leaves the Headquarters and It should be re-hoisted on that building as he enters the main gate of the building on return to the Headquarters. When. the dignitary is on a visit to a place outside the Headquarters, the Flag should be hoisted on the building in which he stays as he enters the main gate of that building and it should be brought down as soon as he leaves that place. On the National days the Flag should, however, be flown from sunrise to sunset on such official residences irrespective of whether the dignitary is at Headquarters or not.
(b) The National-Flag should be flown on the residences at Headquarters of the Heads of Missions/Posts abroad in the countries where it is the custom for diplomatic and consular representatives to fly their National-Flags over their official residences. They may also, in similar circumstances, fly the Flag on their offices where they are separate from residences.
Institutions :
(a) When the President, the Vice-President or the Prime Minister visits an institution, the National-Flag may be flown by the institution as a mark of respect.
(b) On the occasions of the visit to India by foreign dignitaries, namely. President, Vice-President, Emperor/King or Heir Prince and the Prime Minister, the National-Flag may be flown along with the Flag of the foreign country concerned in accordance with the rules by such private institutions as are according reception to the visiting foreign dignitaries and on such public buildings as the foreign dignitaries intend to visit on the day of visit to the institution.
Display of National-Flag on Motor Cars :
(a) The privilege of flying the National-Flag on motor cars Is limited to the :
President Vice-President Governors and Lieutenant Governors Heads of Indian Missions abroad In the countries to which they are accredited Prime Minister and other Cabinet Ministers, Ministers of State and Deputy Ministers of the Union, Chief Minister and other Cabinet Ministers, Ministers of State and Deputy Ministers of States Ministers of State and Deputy Ministers of Union Territories Speaker of the Lok Sabha Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha; Chairmen of Legislative Councils in States, Speakers of Legislative Assemblies in States and Union Territories, Deputy Chairmen of Legislative Councils in States, Deputy Speakers of Legislative Assemblies in States and Union Territories Chief Justice of India, Judges of Supreme Court Chief Justice of High Courts. The case on the entitlement of the High Court Judges is pending. The dignitaries mentioned may fly the National-Flag on their cars, whenever they consider it necessary or advisable.
(b) When a foreign dignitary travels in a car provided by Government, the National-Flag will be flown on the right side of the car and the Flag of the foreign dignitaries will be flown on the left side of the car.
Display of the National-Flag on Trains :
When the President travels by special train within the country, the National-Flag is flown from the driver's cab on the side facing the platform of the station from where the train departs. The Flag Is flown only when the special train is stationary or when coining into the station where it is going to halt.
Display of the National-Flag on Aircraft's :
(a) The National-Flag Is flown on the aircraft carrying the President, the Vice-President or the Prime Minister on a visit to a foreign country. Alongside the National-Flag, the flag of the country visited should also be flown but, when the aircraft lands in countries en route, the National-Flag of the countries touched would be flown instead, as a gesture of courtesy and goodwill. (b) When the President goes on tour within India, the National-Flag is displayed on the side by which the President will embark the aircraft or disembark from It.